Nile Source Fountain !
The Ancient river that created Egypt began ﬂowing in Pre-history. The Entrance Fountain recalls the ancient river, just as the fossils
in its rocks recall the Dinosaurs that lived on its banks.
Later the river was ﬂooded by the sea and early giant mammals, like Basilosaurus, swam above Cairo.At the beginning of mankinds settlement in the Nile Valley the river had begun to reoccupy the eroded ancient river valley,depositing alluvium silts to create habitable land beside the river.
The crocodile and hippo are descendants of these ﬁrst inhabitants of the Nile of 6 – 60 million years ago. !
The ﬁrst landscape of the Nile was a dense African jungle occupied by elephantsand giraffes.At this time,nearly 150,000 years ago,mankind may have ﬁrst come to live along the river and their ancient Ascheulian stone tools date from this period.
At the end of this era North Africa began to enter a dry period resulting in the shrinking of the Jungle.
The last records of these animals being in Egypt may date from 20,000 years ago, when early mankind inscribed images of them on rocks along the river !
As the Jungle shrank away the land of Egypt became open Savanna grasslands and semi-arid desert from 20,000 – 4,000 years ago.
Lions and antelope roamed the landscape and man recorded them as late as the Middle Kingdom when the Egyptian kings would hunt them.
The ﬁnal desertiﬁcation of Egypt forced mankind to live only along the riverbanks and the civilisations of Egypt began to develop!
Historic Egypt – Two Landscapes
Since Pharaonic times the people of Egypt have been divided between the Desert and the River.
The Desert is occupied by nomadic tribes, the Bedouin and Beja, here it is celebrated by the Bedouin camp at an Oasis, accompanied by the Desert Foxes.
The river bank became a cultivated market garden.
Here the Pharaonic civilization grew food and cultivated herbs and spices, all celebrated in the Pharaonic landscape Garden
and the crocodile that still lived in the river long after the other larger wild mammals had been hunted out of Egypt.
Like the Historic Egyptians the modern population is divided but now mostly between
Farm and City, the Bedouin and Beja are small populations.Modern Village – The development of mechanized water systems in the Roman period,
Archimedes screw and Saggia produced larger organized farming, and surplus that supported the civilization of Greece, Rome and ﬁnally Byzantium and Arab Empires, these
largely created the modern agricultural ﬁeld systems and large canals. Only with the arrival of modern water management with the Aswan and later High Dam did the river
become the constant source of supply it is today. The modern village reﬂects the agricultural communities that have developed during these two millennium of farming,
which still feeds the modern Egyptian population.!